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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/4886

Title: Effects of engineered nanoparticles on survival, reproduction, and behaviour of freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805)
Authors: Musee, N
Oberholster, PJ
Sikhwivhilu, L
Botha, AM
Keywords: Sediments
Physa acuta
Antioxidant enzymes
Embryonic growth
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Musee, N, Oberholster, PJ, Sikhwivhilu, L and Botha, AM. 2010. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on survival, reproduction, and behaviour of freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805). Chemosphere, Vol. 81(10), pp 1196-1203
Series/Report no.: Workflow request;5035
Abstract: Increasing uses of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products and industrial applications has eventually resulted to their releases into atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic environments. However, knowledge gaps in ENPs toxicity, fate, and behaviour currently limit our ability to quantify risk assessment of materials with nanoscale dimensions, and therefore, the extent of the resultant environmental impacts remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of c-alumina, a-alumina, modified TiO2 (M-TiO2), and commercial TiO2 (C-TiO2) ENPs on the survival, behaviour, and early life stages of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Draparnaud). The toxicity evaluation was carried out after spiking commercial sand with ENPs concentrations of 0.005, 0.05, or 0.5 g kg_1. Our findings suggest that increases of c-alumina and a-alumina concentrations at sub-lethal level concentrations caused significant reduction in the embryo growth rate and embryo hatchability. In addition, these ENPs induced observable developmental deformities of the embryos. In addition, toxicity evaluations using acute 96-h and chronic 28-d tests showed exposure duration may be a significant factor in ENPs-induced toxicity. Therefore, long-term exposure of aquatic organisms to ENPs – potentially can alter certain ecological populations at different trophic levels – and may compromise the entire aquatic ecological functionality. The percentage hatchlings in test chambers containing 0.5 g kg_1 c-alumina and a-alumina concentration was 50% less to those observed in the controls. Our results suggest the embryonic growth and hatchability tests are useful endpoints in chronic sediment toxicity tests for determining the toxic thresholds of ENPs in sediment environment. Although no snail mortalities were observed during the static 96-h test containing sediment spiked with different concentrations of M-TiO2, C-TiO2, c-alumina and a-alumina – the antioxidant enzymatic assay results indicated a significant change in antioxidant levels which altered peroxidation at 0.05 or 0.5 g kg_1concentrations for both c-alumina and a-alumina.
Description: Copyright: 2010 Elsevier. This is the Post print version of the work. The definitive version is published in Chemosphere, Vol. 81(10), pp 1196-1203
URI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V74-5172K72-7-9&_cdi=5832&_user=958262&_pii=S0045653510010556&_origin=search&_coverDate=11/30/2010&_sk=999189989&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlz-zSkWb&_valck=1&md5=95e873d0ca8a37e03c39a6a081341e99&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
ISSN: 0045-6535
Appears in Collections:National Centre for nano-structured materials
Pollution and waste
Water resources and human health
General science, engineering & technology

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