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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/4136

Title: Phytochemistry and in vitro pharmacological activities of South African Vitex (Verbenaceae) species
Authors: Nyiligira, E
Viljoen, AM
Van Heerden, FR
Van Zyl, RL
Van Vuuren, SF
Steenkamp, PA
Keywords: Vitex Verbenaceae species
Anti-malarial
Antimicrobial activity
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-oxidant
Issue Date: Oct-2008
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Nyiligira, E, Viljoen, AM, Van Heerden, FR et al. 2008. Phytochemistry and in vitro pharmacological activities of South African Vitex (Verbenaceae) species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 119(3), pp 680-685
Abstract: The in vitro phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of the non-volatile extracts of five South African Vitex species (Verbenaceae); V. obovata ssp. obovata, V. obovata ssp. wilmsii, V. pooara, V. rehmannii and V. zeyheriwere investigated in order to validate their traditional use to treat a wide range of ailments such as malaria, wounds, skin diseases and body pains. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay. Through bioactivity-guided fractionation, the fraction responsible for the antimicrobial activity was determined. The toxicity profile, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitywas evaluated using the tetrazolium cellular viability, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 5-lipoxygenase assays respectively. The antimalarial activity of the extracts and isolated compound from V. rehmanniiwas also investigated on the chloroquine-resistant Gambian FCR-3 strain of Plasmodium falciparum using the tritiated hypoxanthine incorporation assay. Mostly good antimicrobial inhibition was evident against Grampositive bacteria (0.02–8.00 mg/ml) and lower activity against the Gramnegative bacteria and the yeast (0.50–8.00 mg/ml). The fraction responsible for antimicrobial activity of V. rehmannii was purified to give a labdane diterpene as an inseparable epimeric mixture of 12S,16S/R-dihydroxy-ent-labda-7,13-dien-15,16-olide. Cirsimaritin was also isolated and identified from V. rehmannii. All the species, apart from V. zeyheri, exhibited scavenging activity (IC50: 22.14±1.74 to 33.06±1.68g/ml) in the anti-oxidant assay. None of the species displayed any anti-inflammatory activity at 100g/ml. All the extracts and the labdane diterpene exhibited good antimalarial activity, with the labdane diterpene being the most active (IC50: 2.39±0.64g/ml). The test extractswere shown to be highly toxic, displaying safety index values ranging from 0.53 to 2.59. Of all the pharmacological investigations, the antimalarial and antimicrobial activity exhibited greatest activity and may provide a scientific basis for the ethnomedical use of Vitex species.
Description: Copyright: 2008 Elsevier. This is the author's pre print version of the work. It is posted here by permission granted by Elsevier. The definitive version is published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 119(3), pp 680-685
URI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.004
http://hdl.handle.net/10204/4136
ISSN: 0378-8741
Appears in Collections:Analytical science
General science, engineering & technology
Bioprospecting

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