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dc.contributor.author Musee, N
dc.date.accessioned 2013-01-28T08:13:41Z
dc.date.available 2013-01-28T08:13:41Z
dc.date.issued 2011-09
dc.identifier.citation Musee, N. 2011. Simulated environmental risk estimation of engineered nanomaterials: a case of cosmetics in Johannesburg City. Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 30(9), pp. 1181-1195 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0960-3271
dc.identifier.uri http://het.sagepub.com/content/30/9.toc
dc.identifier.uri http://het.sagepub.com/content/30/9/1181.full.pdf+html
dc.identifier.uri http://het.sagepub.com/content/30/9/1181.abstract
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10204/6455
dc.description Copyright: 2010 The author. This is the postprint version of the work. The definitive version is published in Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 30(9), pp. 1181-1195 en_US
dc.description.abstract This paper attempts to quantify the potential risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems from cosmetic-based nanoproducts. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were modelled for the silver (nAg) and titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) nanoparticles embedded in cosmetic nanoproducts. The Johannesburg Metropolitan City (JHB City), in South Africa, was used as the reference study area. A mathematical model was applied to compute the quantities of ENMs flows from the cosmetic nanoproducts into the JHB City aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The risk quotient (RQ) of the nanoscale materials were evaluated as a ratio of PEC to the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). RQ values showed wide variance due to factors like; the quantities of ENMs, the fate and pathways of ENMs in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as well as the economic and demographic data for South Africa and Switzerland. For the aquatic environment, the PEC values of nAg ranged from 2.80 × 10(-3) to 6.19 × 10(-1) µg L(-1) whereas for nTiO(2) the values ranged from 2.7 0 × 10(-3) to 2.70 × 10(-1) µg L(-1) under the realistic dilution factor of 1 with the WWTP functioning at high removal efficiency regime. The RQ values in the aquatic ecosystems were mostly >1, indicating the potential risk of both nAg and nTiO(2) but <<<1 in the terrestrial ecosystems. Our results provide the first quantification of ENMs potential risk into the environment Johannesburg City in a developing country's natural and technical settings. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher SAGE Publications en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Workflow;7243
dc.subject Cosmetics en_US
dc.subject Environmental risk assessment en_US
dc.subject Engineered nanomaterials en_US
dc.subject Predicted no effect concentrations en_US
dc.subject Predicted environmental concentrations en_US
dc.subject Risk quotient en_US
dc.subject Nanotechnology en_US
dc.subject Johannesburg City en_US
dc.title Simulated environmental risk estimation of engineered nanomaterials: a case of cosmetics in Johannesburg City en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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