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dc.contributor.author Kfir, R
dc.contributor.author Genthe, Bettina
dc.date.accessioned 2007-06-12T07:44:06Z
dc.date.available 2007-06-12T07:44:06Z
dc.date.issued 1993
dc.identifier.citation Kfir, R and Genthe, B. 1993. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of immunodetection techniques for the enumeration of micro-organisms and toxins in water. Water Science and Technology, vol. 27, 04 March, pp 243-252 en
dc.identifier.issn 0273-1223
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10204/570
dc.description Copyright: 1993 Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd en
dc.description.abstract The applications of immunological techniques to the analytical challenges presented by water pollution and its tremendous expansion during recent decades are reviewed. Examples of the immunodetection methods evaluated for their advantages and disadvantages in the water field include the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and radio-immuno-assays (RIA) for the direct detection of viruses from water concentrates; cyto-immuno-labelling and immunofluorescence techniques specific for rota and hepatitis A viruses; and the use of ELISA and immunofluorescence for the detection of bacteria (Legionella, faecal coliforms) and protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium). The production and use of monoclonal antibodies against algal toxins are also evaluated. The advantages to be gained by utilizing these techniques in the water field are numerous. In general, they simplify the detection method, shorten detection time and are less labour intensive than other conventional methods. They also provide a tool for the detection of pollutants that otherwise could not be identified. However, many disadvantages are associated with utilising immunological techniques. False positives are often reported due to reactions with non-specific matter in the water sample or cross-reactivity with a wide range of organisms. These methods are also unable to indicate the viability of organisms. The successful use of immunodetection techniques in the water field often depends on their combination with conventional culturing methods and/or microscopic observation. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd en
dc.subject Immunodetection techniques en
dc.subject Monoclonal antibodies en
dc.subject Water en
dc.subject Micro-organisms en
dc.subject Toxins en
dc.title Advantages and disadvantages of the use of immunodetection techniques for the enumeration of micro-organisms and toxins in water en
dc.type Article en


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