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Enabling a battery-less sensor node using dedicated radio frequency energy harvesting for complete o-grid applications

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dc.contributor.author Miller, T
dc.contributor.author Oyewobi, SS
dc.contributor.author Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan MI
dc.contributor.author Hancke, GP
dc.date.accessioned 2020-10-27T12:32:11Z
dc.date.available 2020-10-27T12:32:11Z
dc.date.issued 2020-10
dc.identifier.citation Miller, T., Oyewobi, S.S., Abu-Mahfouz, A.M.I. & Hancke, G.P. 2020. Enabling a battery-less sensor node using dedicated radio frequency energy harvesting for complete o-grid applications. Energies, vol. 13(20). pp. 1-21 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1996-1073
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205402
dc.identifier.uri https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/20/5402
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10204/11640
dc.description © 2020 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license en_US
dc.description.abstract The large-scale deployment of sensor nodes in difficult-to-reach locations makes powering of sensor nodes via batteries impractical. Besides, battery-powered WSNs require the periodic replacement of batteries. Wireless, battery-less sensor nodes represent a less maintenance-intensive, more environmentally friendly and compact alternative to battery powered sensor nodes. Moreover, such nodes are powered through wireless energy harvesting. In this research, we propose a novel battery-less wireless sensor node which is powered by a dedicated 4 W EIRP 920 MHz radio frequency (RF) energy device. The system is designed to provide complete off-grid Internet of Things (IoT) applications. To this end we have designed a power base station which derives its power from solar PV panels to radiate the RF energy used to power the sensor node. We use a PIC32MX220F32 microcontroller to implement a CC-CV battery charging algorithm to control the step-down DC-DC converter which charges lithium-ion batteries that power the RF transmitter and amplifier, respectively. A 12 element Yagi antenna was designed and optimized using the FEKO electromagnetic software. We design a step-up converter to step the voltage output from a single stage fully cross-coupled RF-DC converter circuit up to 3.3 V. Finally, we use the power requirements of the sensor node to size the storage capacity of the capacitor of the energy harvesting circuit. The results obtained from the experiments performed showed that enough RF energy was harvested over a distance of 15 m to allow the sensor node complete one sense-transmit operation for a duration of 156 min. The Yagi antenna achieved a gain of 12.62 dBi and a return loss of -14.11 dB at 920 MHz, while the battery was correctly charged according to the CC-CV algorithm through the control of the DC-DC converter. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Workflow;23871
dc.subject Battery-less sensor nodes en_US
dc.subject RF harvesting en_US
dc.subject Off-grid en_US
dc.subject Wireless Power Transfer en_US
dc.subject Wireless Sensor Networks en_US
dc.title Enabling a battery-less sensor node using dedicated radio frequency energy harvesting for complete o-grid applications en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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