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dc.contributor.author Pitcher, GC
dc.contributor.author Foord, CJ
dc.contributor.author Macey, BM
dc.contributor.author Mansfield, L
dc.contributor.author Mouton, A
dc.contributor.author Smith, Marie E
dc.contributor.author Osmond, SJ
dc.contributor.author Van der Molen, L
dc.date.accessioned 2020-03-17T13:07:00Z
dc.date.available 2020-03-17T13:07:00Z
dc.date.issued 2019-01
dc.identifier.citation Pitcher, G.C. et al. 2019. Devastating farmed abalone mortalities attributed to yessotoxin-producing dinoflagellates. Harmful Algae, vol. 81, pp. 30-41 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1568-9883
dc.identifier.issn 1878-1470
dc.identifier.uri https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988318301677
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2018.11.006
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10204/11328
dc.description Copyright: 2019 Elsevier. Due to copyright restrictions, the attached PDF file only contains the abstract of the full text item. For access to the full text item, please consult the publisher's website. The definitive version of the work is published in Harmful Algae, vol. 81, pp. 30-41 en_US
dc.description.abstract A large dinoflagellate bloom in Walker Bay (South Africa) in January 2017 impacted 3 land-based abalone farms resulting in the death of several million animals. Satellite-derived images of Chl-a from the Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) on board the European Space Agency Sentinel-3 A showed bloom initiation in late December 2016 and dispersal in mid-February 2017. The bloom was dominated by two dinoflagellate species identified by light microscopy as Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866 and Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein) Dodge, 1989. These morphologically based identifications were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences of the large subunit rDNA of both dinoflagellates. The appearance of yessotoxins (YTX) in abalone clearly coincided with increases in dinoflagellate concentrations. Yessotoxins in both the plankton and abalone were dominated by the two analogues homo-YTX and 45-hydroxy-YTX. The absence of toxins in a clonal culture of L. polyedrum implicated G. spinifera as the likely source of YTX. Toxin concentrations were found to be highest in the gills which showed the most significant pathology, including severe, generalized disruption of the gill epithelium characterized by degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells accompanied by a modest inflammatory response. Some farms undertook pre-emptive or emergency harvesting to reduce financial losses. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Workflow;23218
dc.subject Abalone mortality en_US
dc.subject Gonyaulax spinifera en_US
dc.subject Harmful algal blooms en_US
dc.subject HAB en_US
dc.subject Lingulodinium polyedrum en_US
dc.subject Yessotoxins en_US
dc.title Devastating farmed abalone mortalities attributed to yessotoxin-producing dinoflagellates en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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