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dc.contributor.author Kapwata, T
dc.contributor.author Mathee, A
dc.contributor.author Le Roux, Wouter J
dc.contributor.author Wright, CY
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-06T10:24:30Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-06T10:24:30Z
dc.date.issued 2018-08
dc.identifier.citation Kapwata, T. et al. 2018. Diarrhoeal disease in relation to possible household risk factors in South African villages. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15(8): https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081665 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1660-4601
dc.identifier.issn 1661-7827
dc.identifier.uri https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/8/1665
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081665
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10204/10515
dc.description Open access article published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15(8): https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081665 en_US
dc.description.abstract Diarrhoeal disease is a significant contributor to child morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Poor sanitation, a lack of personal hygiene and inadequate water supplies are known risk factors for diarrhoeal disease. Since risk factors may vary by population or setting, we evaluated the prevalence of diarrhoeal disease at the household level using a questionnaire to better understand household-level risk factors for diarrhoea in selected rural areas in South Africa. In a sub-sample of dwellings, we measured the microbial quality of drinking water. One in five households had at least one case of diarrhoea during the previous summer. The most widespread source of drinking water was a stand-pipe (inside yard) (45%) followed by an indoor tap inside the dwelling (29%). Storage of water was common (97%) with around half of households storing water in plastic containers with an opening large enough to fit a hand through. After adjusting for confounders, the occurrence of diarrhoea was statistically significantly associated with sourcing water from an indoor tap (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.73, 95% CI: 2.73, 1.14–6.56) and storing cooked/perishable food in non-refrigerated conditions (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 2.17, 1.44–3.26). The highest total coliform counts were found in water samples from kitchen containers followed by stand-pipes. Escherichia coli were most often detected in samples from stand-pipes and kitchen containers. One in four households were at risk of exposure to contaminated drinking water, increasing the susceptibility of the study participants to episodes of diarrhoea. It is imperative that water quality meets guideline values and routine monitoring of quality of drinking water is done to minimise diarrhoea risk in relevant rural communities. The security of water supply in rural areas should be addressed as a matter of public health urgency to avoid the need for water storage. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Worklist;21568
dc.subject Diarrhoea en_US
dc.subject Water quality en_US
dc.subject Water storage en_US
dc.subject Environmental health en_US
dc.subject South Africa en_US
dc.title Diarrhoeal disease in relation to possible household risk factors in South African villages en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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