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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/5259

Title: Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa
Authors: Hoffmann, JH
Moran, VC
Van Wilgen, BW
Keywords: Cone feeding insects
Pissodes validirostris
Pine pitch canke
Fusarium circinatum
Pathogen ingress
Issue Date: Sep-2011
Publisher: Entomological Society of Southern Africa
Citation: Hoffmann, JH, Moran, VC and Van Wilgen, BW. 2011. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology, Vol 19(2), pp 393-401
Series/Report no.: Workflow request;7383
Abstract: Nine Pinus species (Pinaceae) have become invasive plants in South Africa after being deliberately introduced and cultivated in commercial forests, for timber. A proposal to use biological control to contain the problem raised concerns among foresters who immediately identified a number of difficulties that could arise for the forestry industry if biological control agents were to be introduced. As a compromise, plans weremadeto target, initially at least, two pine species, Pinus pinaster Aiton and Pinus halepensis Mill., that currently have no commercial value. A cone-feeding weevil from Portugal, Pissodes validirostris Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was identified as the most promising agent. Formerly regarded as a single species, extensive preparatory studies revealed that there are several different forms (perhaps a complex of sibling species) of P. validirostris each associated with different pine species in different regions of Europe. Screening tests in arboreta in France showed that the prospective agent was host-specific enough to be used with safety in South Africa. Despite this positive finding, the programme did not proceed much further because subsequent trials in quarantine in South Africa showed that damage caused by the adult weevils feeding on leader shoots of pines allowed ingress of pitch canker, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O’Donnell (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae), an increasingly problematic pathogen in pine forests in South Africa. However, given the escalating negative consequences of pine tree invasions, especially in the Cape Floral Region, the question of whether or not this biological control programme should have been discontinued in 2009 remains open for debate and the opposing views on the subject are presented.
Description: Copyright: 2011 Entomological Society of Southern Africa. Special permission to self archive this article was given by the publisher and copyright owner of the article "Entomological Society of Southern Africa".
URI: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.4001/003.019.0209
ISSN: 1021-3589
Appears in Collections:Ecosystems processes & dynamics
General science, engineering & technology

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