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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/1651

Title: Treatment using reverse osmosis of an effluent from stainless steel manufacture
Authors: Schoeman, JJ
Steyn, A
Scurr, PJ
Keywords: Neutralized spent acid
Reverse osmosis
Ammonia-nitrogen removal
Acid effluents
Industrial seepage
Pollution control
Environmental engineering
Issue Date: Sep-1996
Publisher: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Citation: Schoeman, JJ, Steyn, A and Scurr, PJ. 1996. Treatment using reverse osmosis of an effluent from stainless steel manufacture. Water Research, vol 30(9), pp 1979-1984
Abstract: Reverse osmosis (RO) and physical/chemical technology were evaluated for treatment of neutralized spent acid effluent (seepage) containing high concentration levels of TDS (7500mg/l), Ca (400 mg/l), Cr-V1 (42 mg/l), nitrate-nitrogen (827 mg/l), ammonia-nitrogen (33 mg/l), fluoride (13 mg/l), phenolics (45 mg/l) and COD (620 mg/l). The calcium concentration level in the seepage could be reduced from approximately 400 to 5 mg/l with soda ash softening. Initial permeate flux (feed and bleed system, 85% water recovery) was 278 l/m (2).d. Permeate flux, however, dropped rapidly in the beginning of the run and then remained approximately constant to the end of the run. However, chemical cleaning of the membranes was necessary to maintain flux. The TDS of the RO feed could be reduced in one case from 34,253 to 1560 mg/l (95.5% removal) at 85% water recovery. Nitrate and ammonia nitrogen were reduced from 2691 and 103 mg/l to 414 (84.6% removal) and 15 mg/l (85.3% removal), respectively. Chromium (V1) and fluoride were reduced from 183 and 90 mg/l to 0.38 (99.8% removal) and 2.8 mg/l (96.9% removal), respectively. COD removals varied between 60 and 80%. No phenolics, however, could be removed from the feed (approximately 32 mg/l) with the cellulose acetate RO membranes. Phenolics, however, could be effectively removed (<.0.2 mg/l) from the RO permeate with hydrogen peroxide oxidation or ion-exchange treatment. Preliminary test work has shown that it should be possible to treat the seepage effectively with RO for pollution control, effluent volume reduction and water recovery.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/1651
ISSN: 0043-1354
Appears in Collections:Pollution and waste
General science, engineering & technology

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