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Browsing by Author "Scholes, RJ"

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  • Biggs, R; Scholes, RJ (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2002-09)
    The area under cultivation in South Africa more than tripled during the twentieth century, while plantation area increased more than tenfold. These land covers now constitute 12% and 1.5%, respectively, of the country's ...
  • Archibald, S; Scholes, RJ (Opulus Press Uppsala Ab, 2007)
    The savannas of Africa are dominated by deciduous trees and perennial but seasonal grasses. Virtually nothing is known about the factors that trigger the onset of greening, or the time-course of leaf-drop in either of these ...
  • Wessels, Konrad J; Van den Bergh, F; Scholes, RJ (Elsevier, 2012-10)
    This paper demonstrates a simulation approach for testing the sensitivity of linear and non-parametric trend analysis methods applied to remotely sensed vegetation index data for the detection of land degradation. The ...
  • Van Jaarsveld, AS; Biggs, R; Scholes, RJ; Bohensky, E; Reyers, B; Lynam, T; Musvoto, Constansia D; Fabricius, C (Royal Society, 2005-01)
    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem ...
  • Archibald, S; Nickless, A; Scholes, RJ; Schulze, R (CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2010-11)
    In southern African savannas, grass production, and therefore the annual extent of fire, is highly dependent on rainfall. This response has repeatedly been noted in the literature but authors used different input variables ...
  • Carpenter, SR; DeFries, R; Dietz, T; Mooney, HA; Polasky, S; Reid, WV; Scholes, RJ (American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2006-10)
    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was designed to meet the needs of decision-makers for scientific information on the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. Even though the intended audience is ...
  • Fabricius, C; Scholes, RJ; Cundill, G (2006)
    The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA, http://www.maweb.org) was undertaken at a variety of spatial scales, from the regional (with sub-Saharan Africa as the assessment area) to the local (at the scale ...
  • Scholes, RJ; Scholes, MC (Bureau Scientific Publications, 1998-09)
    Nitric oxide (NO) reacts with hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of sunlight to form ozone in the lower atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone can be harmful to plants and animals, and is usually regarded as a ...
  • Reid, WV; Mooney, HA; Capistrano, D; Carpenter, SR; Chopra, K; Cropper, A; Dasgupta, P; Hassan, R; Leemans, R; May, RM; Pingali, P; Samper, C; Scholes, RJ; Watson, RT; Zakri, AH; Shidong, Z (Nature Publishing Group, 2006-10-19)
    Historically, conservation has largely relied on the considerations of intrinsic value that McCauley sees as the only solution. This has been manifestly insufficient as a response to the increasing threats to biodiversity, ...
  • Smith, P; Martino, D; Cai, Z; Gwary, D; Janzen, H; Kumar, P; McCarl, B; Ogle, S; O'Mara, F; Rice, C; Scholes, RJ; Sirotenko, O; Howden, M; McAllister, T; Pan, G; Romanenkov, V; Schneider, U; Towprayoon, S (Elsevier B.V, 2007)
    A recent assessment of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has demonstrated significant potential for mitigation, but suggests that the full mitigation will not be realized due to significant barriers to implementation. ...
  • Merbold, L; Ardo, J; Arneth, A; Scholes, RJ; Nouvellon, Y; De Grandcourt, A; Archibald, S; Bonnefond, JM; Boulain, N; Brueggemann, N; Bruemmer, C; Cappelaere, B; Ceschia, E; El-Khidir, HAM; El-Tahir, BA; Falk, U; Lloyd, J; Kergoat, L; Le Dantec, V; Mougin, E; Muchinda, M; Mukelabai, MM; Ramier, D; Roupsard, O; Timouk, F; Veenendaal, EM; Kutsch, WL (Copernicus Publications, 2009)
    This study reports carbon and water fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere in eleven different ecosystems types in Sub-Saharan Africa, as measured using eddy covariance (EC) technology in the first two years of the ...
  • Merbold, L; Ardo, J; Arneth, A; Scholes, RJ; Nouvellon, Y; De Grandcourt, A; Archibald, SA; Bonnefond, JM; Boulain, N; Bruemmer, C; Brueggemann, N; Cappelaere, B; Ceschia, E; El-Khidir, HAM; El-Tahir, BA; Falk, U; Lloyd, J; Kergoat, L; Le Dantec, V; Mougin, E; Muchinda, M; Mukelabai, MM; Ramier, D; Roupsard, O; Timouk, F; Veenendaal, EM; Kutsch, L (Copernicus Group, 2008)
    This study reports carbon and water fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere in eleven different ecosystems types in Sub-Saharan Africa, as measured using eddy covariance (EC) technology in the first two years of the ...
  • Schimel, DS; House, JI; Hibbard, KA; Bousquet, P; Ciais, P; Peylin, P; Braswell, BH; Apps, MJ; Baker, D; Bondeau, A; Canadell, J; Churkina, G; Cramer, W; Denning, AS; Field, CB; Friedlingstein, P; Goodale, C; Heimann, M; Houghton, RA; Melillo, JM; Moore, B; Murdiyarso, D; Noble, I; Pacala, SW; Prentice, IC; Raupach, MR; Rayner, PJ; Scholes, RJ; Steffen, WL; Wirth, C (Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 2001-11-08)
    Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel ...
  • Wessels, Konrad J; Steenkamp, K; Von Maltitz, Graham P; Archibald, S; Scholes, RJ; Miteff, S; Bachoo, A (IEEE, 2009-07)
    This study used remotely-sensed phenology data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), in a fully supervised decision-tree classification based on the new biome map of South Africa. The objectives ...
  • Scholes, RJ; Anderson, F; Kenyon, C; Napier, J; Ngoepe, P; Van Wilgen, BW; Weaver, A (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2008-11)
    The CSIR celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2006 by taking a long, hard look at its continuing role in South Africa. This paper was written by the CSIR Fellows, at the invitation of the Department of Science and Technology, ...
  • Otter, LB; Scholes, RJ; Dowty, P; Privette, J; Caylor, K; Ringrose, S; Mukelabai, M; Frost, P; Hanan, N; Totolo, O; Veenendaal, EM (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2002-03)
    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the ...
  • Scholes, RJ; Savage, MJ (National Scientific Programmes Unit: CSIR, 1989)
    The parameters used to describe the flow of water, and energy to a lesser extent, through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are reviewed and the techniques used for estimating their values contrasted. The measurements ...
  • Scholes, RJ; Archer, SR (Annual Reviews Inc, 1997)
    Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). ...
  • Scholes, RJ; Dowty, PR; Caylor, K; Parsons, DAB; Frost, PGH; Shugart, HH (Opulus Press Uppsala, 2002-06)
    The Kalahari sand sheet occupies 2.5 million ha in southern Africa. It is an area with relatively similar deep Aeolian soils, and a strong south to north gradient in rainfall, from 200 to 1000 mm mean annual precipitation ...
  • Scholes, RJ (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2002-09)
    This paper describes a simple, quick, non data-intensive quantitative approach for sorting certain types of environmental issues into those that are unlikely to be problems; those likely to be problems; and those requiring ...